Posts filed under ‘Science’
Mr.Kellogg’s class has been working on the differences between artistic and scientific drawings.Heres a little bit of what we have learned.
This is what we learned about artistic drawings:
- Can change detail
- Sketch because it’s beautiful
This is what we learned about scientific drawings:
- Draw what they see (don’t change)
- Sketch related to work or research
- Label work
Here are the similarities between artistic and scientific drawings:
Lots of detail:
- Use pencil first
- Use tools (like rulers etc.)
We used all of these hints to help us work on artistic and scientific drawings. Mr.Kellogg gave each table of students a material to experiment with and draw.
Here are some of the materials that we drew:
- Money plant
If you want to see more of these beautiful drawings come to Kaleidoscope to see the rest of our class’s wonderful drawings. If you are interested, you can try it at home. But come soon; they will be up for a couple of weeks.
We hope you enjoyed our article on artistic and scientific drawings.
Some background from Williston Central School Enrichment Teacher Cris Milks:
Eleven students were selected to participate in an exciting Enrichment/Swift House collaborative project that was embedded in the Swift House Earth Systems Unit. Within the unit, students had the opportunity to learn about a variety of earth science topics including the rock cycle and water cycle. This project has been an authentic opportunity to learn how both the water cycle and rock cycle come into play in our community. Completing independent research, meeting with Town Planner Jessica Andreoletti, and participating in a service project were integral parts of the class.
By Chiara Antonioli and Hannah Bohmann
On Thursday December eighth, eleven students from Williston Central School’s Swift House took a field trip to the Allen Brook to help with the “Brook Project”. We left at eleven in the morning in our enrichment teacher and parent volunteer’s cars. When we got there we hiked down to the water to help tarp and wrap trees. Lauren Chicote, an AmeriCorp Environmental Educator from Winooski Valley Park District, was there to help us and show us what to do.
We did this because the Allen Brook might overflow onto the ground and wash away the earth. Nothing could be left after the next big storm! As storm water flows into the Allen Brook the trees will stop erosion and suck up toxic chemicals and bacteria like E. Coli. With the trees there, it will stop the overflow and poison; the Allen Brook will be saved!
First we got into groups and started to put plastic tubes around the growing trees to prevent the deer from eating them. We worked in pairs to dig small trenches, slide the tubes on, and hold them in place with bamboo poles. Once that was done, we had to put plastic mats around the base of the tree so critters (mice and other small creatures) wouldn’t eat the roots. These are held in place with metal stakes.
The trees will absorb toxins in the water so that our water is cleaner. This means that it will be less expensive to purify for drinking and household water. It costs less to purify nearly clean water then it does to purify toxic water. The trees will also hold the soil in place so when the river overflows, it won’t wash away all the soil.
We have taken the time to interview some of the people from our group. We asked two students on the trip questions about their experience and about other ways we can keep our watershed healthy.
We asked Bennet Cheer, “How can we stop runoff from happening besides planting trees?” He responded, “You can insert a rain barrel and wash your car on the lawn, not on the pavement.” Inserting a rain barrel can help catch water running off your roof. If you wash your car on pavement then all the toxins go straight into the storm drain without being cleaned by the grass and earth.
We asked Morgan Roberts: “What do you think would be a result of further erosion and poison in the Allen Brook?” She responded, “The fish and their habitats would die out. It would turn into a dump! You wouldn’t be able to wade in it. Not pleasant…” This means that all of the erosion will make the brook walls larger and wider. All of the water will get shallower and shallower and eventually it will almost be completely gone. Another thing that could happen would be all of the plants and grass would grow in it because of fertilizer washing into the brook. Fertilizer is washed off of farm land and yards during storms. It could turn into a swamp from all the toxins and bacteria pouring in from the storm drains.
We asked our Swift House teacher and service project helper, Amy Skapof, “Have you ever seen erosion in your day to day life?” Skapof replied, “Yes! Killington, on the side of the road. Also on trails after Hurricane Irene.”
We asked Karen Cutler, a parent volunteer on our trip, “How did you feel about this field trip as a great learning experience?” Cutler responded: “As a mom, I get into the habit of thinking that kids need instruction, supervision, and prodding to get real work done. What I love about projects like this is seeing how you young people can self-organize into teams and work efficiently and responsibly, pretty much on your own. Of course you need some instruction at first, to know what to do, and adult supervision is important to keep everyone safe, but you guys kicked butt out there and got everything done on time. I think you had fun doing it, too. I can’t tell you how happy it made me to see you all working so cooperatively; I’ve known some of you since first grade, and you have learned so much since then. I think I had a glimpse of the future… and it looks good.”
Our community service trip was very fun and we learned so much. Wrapping and tubing trees is a great way to learn and experience science. This would be a great hands-on project to do with other small groups for school.
Morgan Roberts and Johnny Colt
During our Swift House Enrichment course we have been learning about Earth systems. In this unit we have been learning about the rock cycle and the water cycle. What we have learned about these earth systems has helped us to understand how and why storm water runoff is such a big issue in Williston.
The rock cycle is a cycle that rocks take on their life. Rocks cycle through the three different types of rock over very long periods of time. The rock types are sedimentary, Metamorphic, and Igneous. Sedimentary rock is formed when sand, pebbles, and shells and other sediments are compressing together over many years. Metamorphic rock occurs when existing rocks change because of increased heat and pressure. Igneous rock is when magma cools and hardens, for example when lava cools.
A metamorphic rock is formed when the rock is under ground, and it starts heating and is under a lot of pressure. It starts to melt and stretch which means that it sort of looks like the rock it started out as but stretched out and melted. An example of this is gneiss.
An igneous rock is formed when the rock is far underground where it is very hot. As it reaches the surface (as a volcano) or close to the surface it starts to harden and crystallize. If it cools quickly it can be all shiny and smooth like obsidian. When igneous rocks come up to the surface and weatherize and then erosion happens and then it gets laid back down as sediment to makes sedimentary rock.
The way this works is when sedimentary rock deforms and turns into metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rock melts and crystallizes and turns into Igneous rock. Then Igneous rock weathers to the surface then erosion happens and depositions and compacts to make sedimentary rock. That’s how the rock cycle works.
The rock cycle is what makes us have rocks of different types, so if we didn’t have this system, there probably would only be sand. All and all the rock cycle is really important, that’s our way of finding diamonds, gold and other special rocks. If we didn’t have this systems all of our rocks would always stay the same and nothing would ever happen to them. Just think if we didn’t have this system?
Ananth Malladi, Baxter Bishop and Prince Yodishembo
The same water cycles again and again.
Step 1 Water starts as runoff from precipitation and drains to a lake or an ocean or another large water body.
Step 2 The water starts in a lake or a stream and evaporates to form water vapor. Water vapor also comes from plants during transpiration.
Step 3 Water condenses in the cloud. When enough water molecules build up in a cloud, it gets heavy enough to rain down. This is called precipitation. Precipitation could also be snow, hail or ice.
Step 4 When the water reaches the ground it goes into the ground. This is called infiltration. The water travels underground. When it feeds back into waterways or the ocean is called the subsurface outflow. It can also come out on the ground in springs or be stored underground in aquifers.
The water lands on pavement and goes into the sewer. The water travels throughout the sewer until it is dumped out into a lake or an ocean. With the Allen Brook, water travels from that to the Winooski river, which travels to lake Champlain, which leads to the Atlantic ocean.
The rain goes straight into a body of water like a spring, river, lake or an ocean.
The cycle starts all over again.
Bennett Cheer and Jeff Goldman
According to the Town of Williston Comprehensive Plan for Watershed Health, the development of Williston has increased over the past several years. This has affecting the volume, velocity, and quality of surface runoff in the town. These changes are affecting the stability of the stream’s channel and the heath of the aquatic, wetland, and riparian communities along the stream. Impacts created by land use in these areas, along with state and federal laws, have moved Williston to make watershed management a major priority. The Allen Brook has been placed on the state list of impaired waters.
An example of how erosion and runoff brings sediment and nutrients into the water is that there has been a very large amount of dangerous blue green algae blooms in Lake Iroquois in the past two years. An example of development near waterways can be seen as Vermont technical College is facing growth and wants to build an extra parking lot to accommodate for its new students. As reported in the Williston Observer, “The school population is growing each year around 5 percent, and to accommodate that growth in the next year, we need more parking,” said Michael Burke, a senior project engineer with Kerbs & Lansing. The idea was stopped by the Williston Development Review Board (DRB) which cited associated environmental concerns.
There are several things Williston is doing to control erosion and water pollution. The first thing the town is doing is putting in rain gardens. Rain gardens treat and slow down polluted water that comes from tar surfaces and other impervious surfaces. Williston is also asking for people to put in downspouts with gutter extensions. These prevent erosion because rather than creating runoff they make it so the water goes into the ground. The third thing Williston is doing is having outreach workshops to teach people how to make and use rain barrels. These prevent erosion because the water will not turn into runoff which badly erodes the ground. They have more information about what homeowners can do to keep the watershed healthy at http://www.smartwaterways.org/.
As you my or not know, the Allen Brook is slowly eroding and being polluted. The town approved up to $114,119 in funds to help this problem. Over 43.59 acres of land is being preserved so that trees can be planted there to suck in toxins and prevent erosion of the Allen Brook. This year, 17 acres of trees were planted and over 23 acres of conservation easements were created.
On Friday, December 16th we went to the Town Planning and Zoning Office to have an interview with Planner Jessica Andreoletti. We asked her for some examples of what Williston is doing to manage stormwater. She replied that Williston is:
- Street sweeping to keep dirt out of the watershed by keeping storm drains clear.
- The town also sponsors outreach and education workshops are being held for homeowners.
- Scientists are studying the banks of the Allen Brook and other waterways to look for erosion. They are also monitoring waterways for water quality.
- Williston is putting in retention ponds in new development to keep the water from turning into runoff too quickly and causing erosion.
- Homeowners within150 feet of named waterways and 50 feet of unnamed waterways have to say that they will not build anything on their land. Homeowners may be able to build if they do mitigation to increase the waterway health in another way.
The town is also doing active restoration which is construction like cutting banks and putting in fish lunkers (habitat for fish). Some of the passive stream restoration things that are going on around the Allen Brook are that trees are being planted on the banks to hold the soil in place and take out harmful nutrients and toxins. They are also getting conservation easements so no one builds anything else around the stream. So far there has not been any evidence of the water quality getting better on the Allen Brook. Although it’s hard to predict, Andreoletti hopes that water quality will begin to improve in the next ten years.
The town of Williston keeps our watershed healthy by keeping people from building without carefully planning. If erosion is not controlled over time, rivers would erode until they ate away houses and buildings, pollution would kill all bugs and fish, and there would be algae blooms that would eliminate dissolved oxygen in the water and kill fish and bugs.
For this project, we used these sources:
1. Stormwater Projects in Williston – Stormwater – Town of Williston, Vermont (website)
2. Williston Observer Board approves Brook project By Adam White October 6, 2011 Observer staff
3.Vermont Tech wants to add a lot, DRB cites environmental issues Dec. 1 2011 By Luke Baynes Observer staff
4.Town Of Williston 2011 DRAFT Comprehensive Plan CHAPTER 11 WATERSHED HEALTH
5. December 16th Interview with Town Planner Jessica Andreoletti
Molly Duncan and Julia Neeld
Storm Water Runoff is when you have rain that gets dirty or polluted and it gets into streams then rivers and then larger bodies of water. This will do a lot of harm to our environment. Because the water is polluted it can harm and/or kill aquatic life. Town workers and managers have had to close some small lakes or bodies of water that people swim in because it is so polluted. Williston has been failing the water quality tests. What has been happening is that algae is blooming near lakes and dogs are eating them and dying. There is also a lot more that has been happening so please visit: www.smartwaterways.com to learn more about it and see what you can do!
There are lots of things we can do to prevent this. One way that you can prevent this is by putting a rain barrel near your gutter so that it can collect rain. This will help because on the waters way down to the sewer, it may collect sorts of things like cans, bottles, cigarettes, and all the other garbage that is on the ground. Also it may collect oil from cars. So what the rain barrels does is it keeps all of that water from going down into the sewer, and that will help a lot. Also it not only helps bodies of water from polluting, but it also helps prevent bodies of water from flooding, and erosion.
Another way to prevent storm water runoff is if you can put a gutter extension on your house, then it can decrease roof and driveway runoff. This will help because it allows the water to be filtered out naturally through the ground before it goes into the waterway through the ground.
One of the last things that you can do to prevent runoff is by putting a rain garden in front of your house. A rain garden is a bowl shaped garden. It is supposed to absorb and clean all of the rain before it goes into and bigger bodies of water.
We hope that you take action and try to help us prevent storm water runoff by doing any of these things to help. You can help by putting a rain barrel in your yard, attaching a gutter extension to your house, or by putting a rain garden in front of your house. You can also do anything else that you have learned about that can help storm water runoff and improve watershed health. Thank you.
By Dani Kasti and Cyrus Petra
Be respectful to the animals. If you are not respectful you are hurting nature. In Equinox, we are studying the forest, the fields, streams and rivers and wetlands. We divided all of the kids in Equinox into four groups. Each group learns about one ecosystem and then they move to another until you have been to all four.
We went to the Allen Brook with Ms. Ward. Cyrus did a project about the river. In our Science notebooks we recorded the weather, time and date. We divided into small groups. One went near the rocks, another went under the bridge, and the third went to the other side of the bridge. We listed things that we saw like soil, slimy rocks and plants.
We were trying to catch little creatures that lived in the stream by using nets. We put them in a cup or a test tube. A cray fish would go in the cup and a minnow in the test tube. We observed them and wrote in our Science notebooks. We brought them back into the classroom and looked carefully at what everyone caught. We measured them and wrote things like how many legs.
We also brought in rocks and put them on the scale to see the weight. We recorded this information in our Science notebooks.
Dani did a project about the field. In the field we were trying to find birds’ nests and birds. We were also trying to find different kinds of animals. We would draw them in our notebooks. Ms. Schoolcraft gave us a card with information about an animal. In the classroom we would pass around a ball of yarn. You would say your animal and you chose someone who tells his/her animal. If your animal eats their animal, you pass the yarn to them. We created a food web!
We also learned about producers, decomposers and consumers. A producer is a plant that gets energy from the sun, a decomposer is an animal that eats dead animals and a consumer is an animal that gets energy from a producer and a decomposer.
Everybody thought this study was fun because there were lots of cool activities.
Imagine waking up to the loud moo of a cow at 6:40 in the morning. That is what it is like for me. Imagine living with 10 layer chickens, 2 beef cows, and 2 pigs. It would seem like a full time job/farm but it is really what my family keeps in the backyard. It would also seem like a lot of work but a lot of animals are really maintenance free, like pigs and chickens. With pigs you just buy an automatic feeder which you fill with pig feed and they can open whenever they are hungry. With chickens you fill a feeder and a water tank and they drink and eat whenever they please, but you do have to collect the eggs every day.
One of the animals that takes up the most time is probably cows. Cows take up the most time because in the winter you have to give them grain and hay everyday because the grass is buried under the snow. They also take up a lot of time because it is hard to get them to the butcher because you need a livestock trailer and a powerful car to transport them. Chickens are not that hard because all you have to do is collect the eggs everyday and fill a feeder and water jug and they are all set for about 2 weeks. With pigs you just have to fill an automatic feeder with grain and they have enough food for maybe a week and a half. You have to give them water everyday because they get hot and drink a lot.
It doesn’t take a lot of land depending on what animals you want. Cows take up the most land because they need 2 pastures. They need 2 pastures because they will eat all the grass in the first pasture and then you switch them to the the second one to let the grass grow back. Pigs take up the least amount of space because all they need is a shack to be protected from the weather and maybe a 10 by 10 pen to root around and that is it. Chickens need a pen to eat and a house with nests to lay there eggs and a bar to roost on.
What They Need
The pigs are kind of my job. The house we built for them used be a chicken shed. We need lots of hay to put on the floor so they can stay warm when it gets cold. We have an automatic feeder that we fill with 50 pounds of pig feed. The feeder has 2 flip up lids so they can get grain whenever they want. It takes them a few days to figure out how to use it. They go through 50 pounds of grain about every week. Then we put an electric fence around their pen so that they cant get out. The pen doesn’t have to be to to big because they will be happy just rooting around in the dirt. Whenever we have scraps of food we cant eat we just throw it into the pen for them to have. We always turn the used pig pens into a garden where we plant berries or vegetables because the dirt is so fertile.
Cows need 2 pastures. They need 2 pastures because once they have eaten all the grass in the first pasture you switch them to the second pasture so they have enough grass. In the winter we roll a round bail into the center of the pasture and that will last them for about a month. You also have to put a water heater in there giant water bin so it doesn’t freeze over. You have to make sure it doesn’t freeze over because even though there is snow they still need water. You also have to give them a little bit of grain in the mornings so that if they get out they will come back to the pen.
With chickens you need a shed so they will be protected from the weather. You need a light bulb in the shed so they will still lay eggs. Chickens need a certain amount of light every day so that they will be able to lay eggs. You only need a light in the winter because in the summer there is enough daylight in the year so they will be able to get enough naturally. You need to buy a heated water tank because just like cows they still need water. You also have to have a feeder so they will be able to get food because the grass is covered with snow
The pigs are my favorite animals because when you walk down they will race out of there shed and run back and forth in their pen while snorting. The pigs are also the kindest animals. The cows are my second favorite animal because they have big round ears and are fat and they don’t run they just lope. When my dad brings us to the bottom of our driveway the run over towards our car because he gives them grain in the morning and to them it is so much better than the grass and hay they usually eat. The chickens are one of my least favorite animal because they smell really bad and aren’t that good looking.
In the end farming is fun in different ways and not as much work as some people think. Sometimes it is fun to wake up to the loud moo of a beef cow. It is like an automatic alarm clock.
The Enrichment Garden Class learned about succession and the development of the WCS property over time.
The Concept of Succession
Nathan VanBuren and Abby Rosenthal
In our garden class we talked about what happens when there is disaster that brings plant life in that area to ground zero. This is the beginning of the process called succession. The stages of succession are annual plants, perennial plants and grasses; shrubs; young forest; mature forest and finally, climax forest . You’re probably thinking, “What do these words mean”! Well this handy table should help.
Name of stage
Years in that stage
Plants in that stage
|Annual plants.||First 5 years||Grasses, wild flowers||Pioneer plants like grasses and wild flowers flourish|
|Perennial plants and grasses.||6 to 25 years||Tree seedlings, Large shrubs||Tree seedlings and shrubs take root.|
|Young forest||26 to 50 years||Deciduous trees, Evergreens||Deciduous trees develop and shade the forest|
|Mature forest||51 to 150 years||Evergreen trees||Evergreen trees take over the forest which opens holes in the canopy for annual plants|
|Climax forest||150 to 300 years||Oak or maple, or fewer larger evergreens||Larger trees dominate the forest|
Succession in Williston
Nate Cuttitta and Zach Hark
For many years this area was forested. In the 1700s, signs of industry started to appear. The forest was chopped down for agriculture, especially in the northern part of town because it is close to the Winooski River. In the early to mid-1800s, farmers grew a variety of crops and kept sheep. The railroad was built along the Winooski River at this time. Development, including a gristmill, train station and other important businesses along the railroad tracks in North Williston happened at this time. The development of the railroad and farm land development in the mid-west led to the growth of dairy farming in North Eastern towns like Williston. In the 1900s, dairy farming continued, but fluid milk replaced butter and cheese as dairy product that were produced. During the time from Williston’s settlement until the 1940’s, several one room school houses were scattered around Williston. Before Williston Central School was built, several buildings and farmland were where the School now stands.
Some information taken from Allen, Richard H, (1987) Our Town: Williston, Vermont, Williston Central School. Photographs and maps supplied by Richard Allen.
For more information, see http://www.uvm.edu/place/towns/williston/cultural.php